Garcia-Garcia, Antonio and Urbina, Juan Diego and Richter, Klaus and Yuzbashyan, Emil and Altshuler, Boris
BCS superconductivity in metallic nanograins: Finite-size corrections, low-energy excitations, and robustness of shell effects.
Physical Review B (PRB) 83, 014510.
Other URL: http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v83/i1/e014510, http://arxiv.org/abs/0911.1559
We combine the BCS self-consistency condition, a semiclassical expansion for the spectral density and interaction matrix elements to describe analytically how the superconducting gap depends on the size and shape of a two- and three-dimensional superconducting grain. In chaotic grains mesoscopic fluctuations of the matrix elements lead to a smooth dependence of the order parameter on the excitation energy. In the integrable case we find shell effects; i.e., for certain values of the electron number N a small change in N leads to large changes in the energy gap. With regard to possible experimental tests we provide a detailed analysis of the dependence of the gap on the coherence length and the robustness of shell effects under small geometrical deformations.