Regensburger, J. and Lehner, K. and Maisch, T. and Vasold, R. and Santarelli, F. and Engel, E. and Gollmer, A. and König, Burkhard and Landthaler, M. and Bäumler, W. (2009) Tattoo inks contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen. Experimental Dermatology.
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In the past years, tattoos have become very popular worldwide, and millions of people have tattoos with mainly black colours. Black tattoo inks are usually based on soot, are not regulated and may contain hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Part of PAHs possibly stay lifelong in skin, absorb UV radiation and generate singlet oxygen, which may affect skin integrity. Therefore, we analysed 19 commercially available tattoo inks using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of PAHs in the different inks ranged from 0.14 to 201 microg/g tattoo ink. Benz(a)pyrene was found in four ink samples at a mean concentration of 0.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g. We also found high concentrations of phenol ranging from 0.2 to 385 microg/g tattoo ink. PAHs partly show high quantum yields of singlet oxygen (Phi(Delta)) in the range from 0.18 to 0.85. We incubated keratinocytes with extracts of different inks. Subsequent UVA irradiation decreased the mitochondrial activity of cells when the extracts contained PAHs, which sufficiently absorb UVA and show simultaneously high Phi(Delta) value. Tattooing with black inks entails an injection of substantial amounts of phenol and PAHs into skin. Most of these PAHs are carcinogenic and may additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen inside the dermis when skin is exposed to UVA (e.g. solar radiation).
|Institutions:|| Medicine > Lehrstuhl für Dermatologie und Venerologie|
Chemistry and Pharmacy > Institut für Organische Chemie > Lehrstuhl Prof. Dr. Burkhard König
|Keywords:||black tattoo ink – PAHs – singlet oxygen – skin – UVA|
|Subjects:||500 Science > 540 Chemistry & allied sciences|
|Refereed:||Yes, this version has been refereed|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Yes|
|Deposited On:||05 Jul 2010 15:26|
|Last Modified:||02 Nov 2011 10:03|