Schweins, T. and Geyer, M. and Kalbitzer, Hans Robert and Wittinghofer, A. and Warshel, A. (1996) Linear free energy relationships in the intrinsic and GTPase activating protein-stimulated guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis of p21ras. Biochemistry 35 (45), pp. 14225-14231.
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Controlling the hydrolysis rate of GTP bound to guanine nucleotide binding proteins is crucial for the right timing of many biological processes. Theoretical, structural, and functional studies have demonstrated that in p21ras the substrate of the reaction, GTP itself, plays a central role by acting as the base catalyst. This substrate-assisted reaction mechanism was analyzed with the help of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). Here we present experimental data that further support the proposed mechanism. We extend the LFER analysis to a wide range of oncogenic as well as nontransforming Ras mutants. It is illustrated that almost all Ras variants follow the observed LFER and thus also the same reaction path. Further, the reduced GTPase reaction rate that characterizes the oncogenic effect of many of the p21 mutants found in human tumors seems to be a consequence of a slightly reduced pKa of the gamma-phosphate group of bound GTP. Factors causing a pKa deviation of just 0.5 unit are enough to slow the intrinsic GTPase reaction rate significantly, and the system may exhibit as a consequence of this an oncogenic potential. Interestingly, we also found oncogenic mutations that do not follow the regular LFER. This suggests that the oncogenic effect of distinct Ras mutants has a different physical origin. The results presented might aid in the design of drugs aimed at reactivating the GTPase reaction of many oncogenic p21ras mutants. We also analyzed the stimulated GTPase reaction of p21ras by the GTPase activating protein (GAP) and the GTPase reaction of Rap1A, a Ras-related GTP binding protein, with similar approaches. The corresponding results indicate that the GAP-stimulated GTPase as well as the Rap1A-catalyzed reaction seem to follow the same substrate-assisted reaction mechanism. However, the correlation coefficient for the GAP-catalyzed reaction is different from the corresponding coefficient for the intrinsic reaction. While the intrinsic reaction exhibits a Brønsted slope of beta = 2.1, the corresponding value for the GAP-activated reaction is beta = 4.9.
|Institutions:||Biology, Preclinical Medicine > Institut für Biophysik und physikalische Biochemie > Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans Robert Kalbitzer|
|Subjects:||500 Science > 570 Life sciences|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Unknown|
|Deposited On:||13 Sep 2010 10:22|
|Last Modified:||13 Sep 2010 10:22|
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