Ackermann, G. and Abels, C. and Bäumler, W. and Langer, S. and Landthaler, M. and Lang, Elmar W. and Szeimies, R M
Simulations on the selectivity of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in vivo.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 47 (2-3), pp. 121-128.
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The knowledge of the exact time course of a photosensitizer in tumour and surrounding host tissue is fundamental for effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence-based diagnosis. In this study the time course of porphyrin fluorescence following topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) using different formulations, concentrations and incubation times has been measured in amelanotic melanomas (A-Mel-3) (n = 54) grown in transparent dorsal skinfold chambers of Syrian golden hamsters and in human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) (n = 40) in vivo. To simulate the accumulation of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (Pp IX), a three-compartment model has been developed and rate constants have been determined. The kinetics of both the A-Mel-3 tumours and the BCCs show a significantly higher fluorescence intensity in tumour as compared to normal surrounding host tissue. Maximal fluorescence intensity in A-Mel-3 tumours as a percentage of the reference standard used occurs 150 min post incubation (p.i.) using a 1, 3 or 10% (vol.) ALA solution buffered to pH 7.4 and 1 h incubation time. After a 4 h incubation time maximal fluorescence intensity in tumour is measured shortly p.i. A concentration of 10% ALA does not increase the fluorescence intensity as compared to 3% ALA following 4 h incubation, but either 3 or 10% ALA yields a significantly higher fluorescence after 4 h incubation time as compared to 1 h. The fluorescence intensity following an 8 h incubation reaches its maximum directly p.i. for all concentrations and then decreases exponentially. The fluorescence intensity in the surrounding host tissue shows no statistically significant difference regarding concentration or incubation time. At least during the first hour p.i., the fluorescence intensity measured in the surrounding tissue is lower as compared to that in the tumour in all groups. 24 h after topical application hardly any fluorescence is detectable in tumour or surrounding host tissue in all experimental groups. Incubating human BCCs with a 20% ALA cream (water-in-oil emulsion) or a 20% ALA gel (containing 40% dimethyl sulfoxide) for approximately 2 h yields a similar fluorescence intensity directly after incubation for either cream or gel. However, while yielding a maximum 120 min p.i. with cream, the fluorescence intensity increases for a longer time (about 2-3 h p.i.) and up to higher values using the gel formulation. In surrounding normal skin, cream as well as gel formulation yields a similar fluorescence intensity directly after incubation. Afterwards the fluorescence intensity decreases slowly using the cream whereas a further increase of the fluorescence intensity is measured in the normal skin with a maximum 240 min p.i. using the gel formulation. The results of the proposed three-compartment model indicate that the observed selectivity of accumulated porphyrins following topical application of ALA is mainly governed by an increased ALA penetration of the stratum corneum of the skin, an accelerated ALA uptake into the cell and a higher porphyrin formation in tumour as compared to normal skin tissue, but not by a reduced ferrocheletase activity.
|Institutions:|| Biology, Preclinical Medicine > Institut für Biophysik und physikalische Biochemie > Prof. Dr. Elmar Lang|
|Keywords:||Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA); Protoporphyrin IX; Topical; Compartment model- Pharmacokinetics|
|Subjects:||500 Science > 570 Life sciences|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Unknown|
|Deposited On:||22 Sep 2010 08:21|
|Last Modified:||22 Sep 2010 08:21|