Wutscher, Elisabeth and Giessibl, Franz J.
Atomic force microscopy at ambient and liquid conditions with stiff sensors and small amplitudes.
Review of Scientific Instruments 82 (9), 093703.
Other URL: http://link.aip.org/link/?RSI/82/093703/1
We report on atomic force microscopy (AFM) in ambient and liquid environments with the qPlus sensor, a force sensor based on a quartz tuning fork with an all-electrical deflection measurement scheme. Small amplitudes, stiff sensors with bulk diamond tips and high Q values in air and liquid allow to obtain high resolution images. The noise sources in air and liquid are analyzed and compared for standard silicon cantilevers and qPlus sensors. First, epitaxial graphene was imaged in air, showing atomic steps with 3 Å height and ridges. As a second sample system, measurements on calcite (CaCO3) in liquids were performed in water and polyethylenglycol (PEG). We demonstrate high resolution images of steps in PEG on calcite and nanolithography processes, in particular with frequency-modulation AFM the controlled dissolution of calcite monolayers.