Hembacher, Stefan and Giessibl, Franz J. and Mannhart, Jochen and Quate, Calvin F. (2003) Revealing the hidden atom in graphite by low-temperature atomic force microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 100 (22), pp. 12539-12542.
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Carbon, the backbone material of life on Earth, comes in three modifications: diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. Diamond develops tetrahedral sp3 bonds, forming a cubic crystal structure, whereas graphite and fullerenes are characterized by planar sp2 bonds. Polycrystalline graphite is the basis for many products of everyday life: pencils, lubricants, batteries, arc lamps, and brushes for electric motors. In crystalline form, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is used as a diffracting element in monochromators for x-ray and neutron scattering and as a calibration standard for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The graphite surface is easily prepared as a clean atomically flat surface by cleavage. This feature is attractive and is used in many laboratories as the surface of choice for “seeing atoms.” Despite the proverbial ease of imaging graphite by STM with atomic resolution, every second atom in the hexagonal surface unit cell remains hidden, and STM images show only a single atom in the unit cell. Here we present measurements with a low-temperature atomic force microscope with pico-Newton force sensitivity that reveal the hidden surface atom.
|Institutions:||Physics > Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics > Chair Professor Giessibl > Group Franz J. Giessibl|
|Subjects:||500 Science > 530 Physics|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Unknown|
|Deposited On:||13 Jul 2012 08:18|
|Last Modified:||13 Jul 2012 08:18|