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Acoustic communication aggression Agonistic allopatric populations allopatric speciation allozyme allozymes amplitude spectra amplitude spectrum Ampullary electroreceptor organs Analogue-to-digital conversion Animal communication signal Animal orientation signal Artbildung assortative mating beat beat analysis beat frequency behaviour Beutefang Bioelektrizität body shape Caprivi Strip choosy females Clarias gariepinus clinal variation cline communication signal Conditioned discrimination cytochrome b dear enemy phenomenon development differentiation Digital synthesis Digital-to-analogue conversion DNA sequence analysis Dressur Eigenmannia Eigenmannia sp. electric communication electric fish electric organ discharge Electric Organ Discharge (EOD) electric organ discharges electric-organ discharge electrical communication electricorgandischarge Electrocommunication Electroreception electrosensory Electrosensory stimulus-intensity threshold electrosensory thresholds electrosensory tuning Elektrischer Sinn Elektrisches Organ Elektrokommunikation Elektrophysiologie Elektrorezeptor elephantfish Evolution evolutionary plasticity female choice fish larvae Fluorescence microscopy Fortpflanzungssystem Fourier analysis frequency difference frequencydiscrimination genomic fingerprinting geographic cline Gymnarchidae Gymnotiformes handicap harmonic content hybridization Incomati Individual recognition intensitydiscrimination inter-discharge interval pattern intra-generic variation intrasexual selection Intraspecific variability intraspecific variation isoryme jamming avoidance response Knochenfische Knollenorgan Kommunikation Kommunikationsverhalten Limpopo Male advertisement signal male advertisement signals Marcusenius Marcusenius sp. mating system Microprocessor mitochondrial DNA molecular genetics molecular genetics Monoamines Mormyridae Mormyrids morphometrics neighbour recognition Nilhechte <Familie> ontogeny parapatric Partnerwahl Partnerwahlverhalten Petrocephalus catostoma phase difference Phase sensitivity phase spectrum phylogeny phylogeography playback playback stimulation polarity reversal Pollimyrus isidori Pongola predation pressure predator Prey detection Pulse waveform Regularized discharge pattern reproduction Reproductive cycle selection pressure Selektionsdruck sensory bias sensory exploitation sensory mechanism sequence analysis sex difference Sexual attraction Sexual dimorphism sexual selection Sexuelle Selektion signal waveform discrimination Signal detection signal waveform sound production southern Africa Spawning speciation SPECIES RECOGNITION spectral analysis stimulus-intensity threshold systematic systematics Teleost brain Teleostei Temporal signal analysis Territoriality territory threshold Upper Zambezi VARIABILITY Verhalten vicariance vocalisation Water conductivity waveform waveform analysis weakly electric fish weakly electric fish
Number of items at this level: 276.

Acoustic communication

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the acoustic communication of a weakly electric fish from southern Africa, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (3), pp. 385-399.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

aggression

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Sound Production in the Territorial Behaviour of the Churchill Petrocephalus catostoma (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River. Bioacoustics 18 (2), pp. 151-158.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the acoustic communication of a weakly electric fish from southern Africa, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (3), pp. 385-399.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2002) Intraspecific agonistic interactions in freely swimming mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 20 (2), pp. 107-121.

Agonistic

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Electric signalling and reproductive behaviour in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 23 (2), pp. 113-125.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2002) Intraspecific agonistic interactions in freely swimming mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 20 (2), pp. 107-121.

allopatric populations

Kramer, Bernd (2013) A morphological study on species of African Mormyrus (Teleostei:
Mormyridae) and their electric organ discharges.
African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (1), pp. 1-19.

allopatric speciation

Kramer, Bernd and Wink, Michael (2013) East–west differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in Southern Africa: the description of a new species for the lower Cunene River, Namibia (Teleostei: Mormyridae). Journal of Natural History 47 (35-36), pp. 2327-2362.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Kramer, Bernd and Bills, Roger and Skelton, Paul and Wink, Michael (2012) A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46 (35-36), pp. 2179-2258.

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2011) The Victoria Falls, a species boundary for the Zambezi Parrotfish, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus (Peters, 1852), and the resurrection of Cyphomyrus cubangoensis (Pellegrin, 1936) (Mormyridae: Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 45 (43-44), pp. 2669-2699.

Kramer, Bernd and Swartz, Ernst R. (2010) A new species of Slender Stonebasher within the Hippopotamyrus ansorgii complex from the Cunene River in southern Africa (Teleostei: Mormyriformes). Journal of Natural History 44 (35-36), pp. 2213-2242.

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

allozyme

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

allozymes

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

amplitude spectra

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

amplitude spectrum

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Ampullary electroreceptor organs

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2000) Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (3), pp. 218-228.

Analogue-to-digital conversion

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Animal communication signal

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Animal orientation signal

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Artbildung

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

assortative mating

Schmid, Daniela and Kramer, Bernd (2014) Sexual selection by female choice prevents speciation reversal in a hybridizing trio of mormyrid fish in southern Africa: evidence from playback experiments of electric organ discharges. Behaviour 151, pp. 1703-1734.

beat

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

beat analysis

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

beat frequency

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

behaviour

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

Beutefang

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Bioelektrizität

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

body shape

Kramer, Bernd (2013) A morphological study on species of African Mormyrus (Teleostei:
Mormyridae) and their electric organ discharges.
African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (1), pp. 1-19.

Caprivi Strip

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

choosy females

Schmid, Daniela and Kramer, Bernd (2014) Sexual selection by female choice prevents speciation reversal in a hybridizing trio of mormyrid fish in southern Africa: evidence from playback experiments of electric organ discharges. Behaviour 151, pp. 1703-1734.

Clarias gariepinus

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

clinal variation

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

cline

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

communication signal

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1989) Patterns of the electric organ discharge during courtship and spawning in the mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus isidori. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24 (6), pp. 349-368.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1988) Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity. Experimental Biology 47, pp. 227-238.

Kramer, Bernd and Westby, G. W. M. (1985) No sex difference in the waveform of the pulse type electric fish,Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Experientia 41 (12), pp. 1530-1531.

Conditioned discrimination

Paintner, Stephan and Kramer, Bernd (2003) Electrosensory basis for individual recognition in a weakly electric, mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Günther, 1866). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55 (5), pp. 197-208.

cytochrome b

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

dear enemy phenomenon

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

development

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

differentiation

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

Digital synthesis

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Digital-to-analogue conversion

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

DNA sequence analysis

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

Dressur

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Eigenmannia

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

Bonn, Udo and Kramer, Bernd (1987) Distribution of Monoamine-Containing Neurons in the Brain of the Weakly Electric Teleost, Eigenmannia lineata (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae). Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 101 (2), pp. 339-362.

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

Eigenmannia sp.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

electric communication

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

electric fish

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Sound Production in the Territorial Behaviour of the Churchill Petrocephalus catostoma (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River. Bioacoustics 18 (2), pp. 151-158.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the acoustic communication of a weakly electric fish from southern Africa, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (3), pp. 385-399.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

Bonn, Udo and Kramer, Bernd (1987) Distribution of Monoamine-Containing Neurons in the Brain of the Weakly Electric Teleost, Eigenmannia lineata (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae). Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 101 (2), pp. 339-362.

electric organ discharge

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

Kramer, Bernd and Swartz, Ernst R. (2010) A new species of Slender Stonebasher within the Hippopotamyrus ansorgii complex from the Cunene River in southern Africa (Teleostei: Mormyriformes). Journal of Natural History 44 (35-36), pp. 2213-2242.

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

Paintner, Stephan and Kramer, Bernd (2003) Electrosensory basis for individual recognition in a weakly electric, mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Günther, 1866). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55 (5), pp. 197-208.

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2000) Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (3), pp. 218-228.

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kramer, Bernd (1997) A field study of African elephantfish (Mormyridae, Teleostei): Electric organ discharges in Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Peters, 1852) and Petrocephalus catostoma (Günther, 1866) as related to sex. Journal of African zoology 111, pp. 313-341.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Electrosensory phase sensitivity in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia in the detection of signals similar to its own. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179 (3), pp. 323-330.

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1989) Patterns of the electric organ discharge during courtship and spawning in the mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus isidori. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24 (6), pp. 349-368.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1988) Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity. Experimental Biology 47, pp. 227-238.

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

Electric Organ Discharge (EOD)

Kramer, Bernd and Westby, G. W. M. (1985) No sex difference in the waveform of the pulse type electric fish,Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Experientia 41 (12), pp. 1530-1531.

electric organ discharges

Kramer, Bernd and Wink, Michael (2013) East–west differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in Southern Africa: the description of a new species for the lower Cunene River, Namibia (Teleostei: Mormyridae). Journal of Natural History 47 (35-36), pp. 2327-2362.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Kramer, Bernd and Bills, Roger and Skelton, Paul and Wink, Michael (2012) A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46 (35-36), pp. 2179-2258.

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2011) The Victoria Falls, a species boundary for the Zambezi Parrotfish, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus (Peters, 1852), and the resurrection of Cyphomyrus cubangoensis (Pellegrin, 1936) (Mormyridae: Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 45 (43-44), pp. 2669-2699.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

electric-organ discharge

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

electrical communication

Schmid, Daniela and Kramer, Bernd (2014) Sexual selection by female choice prevents speciation reversal in a hybridizing trio of mormyrid fish in southern Africa: evidence from playback experiments of electric organ discharges. Behaviour 151, pp. 1703-1734.

electricorgandischarge

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

Electrocommunication

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Electric signalling and reproductive behaviour in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 23 (2), pp. 113-125.

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2002) Intraspecific agonistic interactions in freely swimming mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 20 (2), pp. 107-121.

Electroreception

Paintner, Stephan and Kramer, Bernd (2003) Electrosensory basis for individual recognition in a weakly electric, mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Günther, 1866). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55 (5), pp. 197-208.

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2000) Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (3), pp. 218-228.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

electrosensory

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Electrosensory stimulus-intensity threshold

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Electrosensory phase sensitivity in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia in the detection of signals similar to its own. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179 (3), pp. 323-330.

electrosensory thresholds

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

electrosensory tuning

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

Elektrischer Sinn

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Elektrisches Organ

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Elektrokommunikation

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Elektrophysiologie

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

Elektrorezeptor

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

elephantfish

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

Evolution

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

evolutionary plasticity

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

female choice

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

fish larvae

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

Fluorescence microscopy

Bonn, Udo and Kramer, Bernd (1987) Distribution of Monoamine-Containing Neurons in the Brain of the Weakly Electric Teleost, Eigenmannia lineata (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae). Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 101 (2), pp. 339-362.

Fortpflanzungssystem

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Fourier analysis

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

frequency difference

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

frequencydiscrimination

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

genomic fingerprinting

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

geographic cline

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2011) The Victoria Falls, a species boundary for the Zambezi Parrotfish, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus (Peters, 1852), and the resurrection of Cyphomyrus cubangoensis (Pellegrin, 1936) (Mormyridae: Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 45 (43-44), pp. 2669-2699.

Gymnarchidae

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

Gymnotiformes

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

handicap

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

harmonic content

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

hybridization

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

Incomati

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

Individual recognition

Paintner, Stephan and Kramer, Bernd (2003) Electrosensory basis for individual recognition in a weakly electric, mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Günther, 1866). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55 (5), pp. 197-208.

intensitydiscrimination

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

inter-discharge interval pattern

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

intra-generic variation

Kramer, Bernd (2013) A morphological study on species of African Mormyrus (Teleostei:
Mormyridae) and their electric organ discharges.
African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (1), pp. 1-19.

intrasexual selection

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

Intraspecific variability

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1989) Patterns of the electric organ discharge during courtship and spawning in the mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus isidori. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24 (6), pp. 349-368.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1988) Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity. Experimental Biology 47, pp. 227-238.

intraspecific variation

Kramer, Bernd (2013) A morphological study on species of African Mormyrus (Teleostei:
Mormyridae) and their electric organ discharges.
African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (1), pp. 1-19.

isoryme

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

jamming avoidance response

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Electrosensory phase sensitivity in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia in the detection of signals similar to its own. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179 (3), pp. 323-330.

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

Knochenfische

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

Knollenorgan

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

Kommunikation

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

Kommunikationsverhalten

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Limpopo

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

Male advertisement signal

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

male advertisement signals

Schmid, Daniela and Kramer, Bernd (2014) Sexual selection by female choice prevents speciation reversal in a hybridizing trio of mormyrid fish in southern Africa: evidence from playback experiments of electric organ discharges. Behaviour 151, pp. 1703-1734.

Marcusenius

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2002) Intraspecific agonistic interactions in freely swimming mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 20 (2), pp. 107-121.

Marcusenius sp.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

mating system

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Microprocessor

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

mitochondrial DNA

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

molecular genetics

Kramer, Bernd and Bills, Roger and Skelton, Paul and Wink, Michael (2012) A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46 (35-36), pp. 2179-2258.

molecular genetics

Kramer, Bernd and Wink, Michael (2013) East–west differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in Southern Africa: the description of a new species for the lower Cunene River, Namibia (Teleostei: Mormyridae). Journal of Natural History 47 (35-36), pp. 2327-2362.

Kramer, Bernd and Swartz, Ernst R. (2010) A new species of Slender Stonebasher within the Hippopotamyrus ansorgii complex from the Cunene River in southern Africa (Teleostei: Mormyriformes). Journal of Natural History 44 (35-36), pp. 2213-2242.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Monoamines

Bonn, Udo and Kramer, Bernd (1987) Distribution of Monoamine-Containing Neurons in the Brain of the Weakly Electric Teleost, Eigenmannia lineata (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae). Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 101 (2), pp. 339-362.

Mormyridae

Kramer, Bernd and Swartz, Ernst R. (2010) A new species of Slender Stonebasher within the Hippopotamyrus ansorgii complex from the Cunene River in southern Africa (Teleostei: Mormyriformes). Journal of Natural History 44 (35-36), pp. 2213-2242.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2002) Intraspecific agonistic interactions in freely swimming mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 20 (2), pp. 107-121.

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

Mormyrids

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Electric signalling and reproductive behaviour in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 23 (2), pp. 113-125.

morphometrics

Kramer, Bernd and Wink, Michael (2013) East–west differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in Southern Africa: the description of a new species for the lower Cunene River, Namibia (Teleostei: Mormyridae). Journal of Natural History 47 (35-36), pp. 2327-2362.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

Kramer, Bernd and Bills, Roger and Skelton, Paul and Wink, Michael (2012) A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46 (35-36), pp. 2179-2258.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

neighbour recognition

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

Nilhechte <Familie>

Hanika, Susanne (1997) Elektrosensorische Beutedetektion beim Afrikanischen Scharfzahnwels Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822; Clariidae, Siluriformes, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

ontogeny

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

parapatric

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2011) The Victoria Falls, a species boundary for the Zambezi Parrotfish, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus (Peters, 1852), and the resurrection of Cyphomyrus cubangoensis (Pellegrin, 1936) (Mormyridae: Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 45 (43-44), pp. 2669-2699.

Partnerwahl

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Partnerwahlverhalten

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Petrocephalus catostoma

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

phase difference

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Phase sensitivity

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Electrosensory phase sensitivity in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia in the detection of signals similar to its own. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179 (3), pp. 323-330.

phase spectrum

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

phylogeny

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

Van der Bank, F. Herman and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Phylogenetic Relationships Between Eight African Species of Mormyriform Fish ('l'eleostei, Osteichthyes): Resolution of a Cryptic Species, and Reinstatement of Cyphomyrus Myers, 1960. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (4), pp. 275-290.

phylogeography

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

playback

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form), and possible functions. Behaviour 142 (2), pp. 145-166.

playback stimulation

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

polarity reversal

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Pollimyrus isidori

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

Pongola

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

predation pressure

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

predator

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Prey detection

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2000) Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (3), pp. 218-228.

Pulse waveform

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1989) Patterns of the electric organ discharge during courtship and spawning in the mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus isidori. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24 (6), pp. 349-368.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1988) Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity. Experimental Biology 47, pp. 227-238.

Regularized discharge pattern

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

reproduction

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Ontogenetic development of electric-organ discharges in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Fish Biology 69 (4), pp. 1190-1201.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Electric signalling and reproductive behaviour in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 23 (2), pp. 113-125.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

Reproductive cycle

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

selection pressure

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Selektionsdruck

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

sensory bias

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

sensory exploitation

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

sensory mechanism

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

sequence analysis

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, Herman and Flint, Nicolette and Sauer-Gürth, Hedi and Wink, Michael (2003) Evidence for Parapatric Speciation in the Mormyrid Fish, Pollimyrus castelnaui (Boulenger, 1911), from the Okavango–Upper Zambezi River Systems: P. marianne sp. nov., Defined by Electric Organ Discharges, Morphology and Genetics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67 (1), pp. 47-70.

sex difference

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Morphological and electrophysiological field observations on electric freshwater fish of the genus Mormyrops Müller 1843 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from West and southern Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 (Sup. 1), pp. 31-41.

Sexual attraction

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2011) Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Ethology 29 (1), pp. 131-142.

Sexual dimorphism

Hanika, Susanne and Kramer, Bernd (2000) Electrosensory prey detection in the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae), of a weakly electric mormyrid fish, the bulldog (Marcusenius macrolepidotus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48 (3), pp. 218-228.

Kramer, Bernd (1997) A field study of African elephantfish (Mormyridae, Teleostei): Electric organ discharges in Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Peters, 1852) and Petrocephalus catostoma (Günther, 1866) as related to sex. Journal of African zoology 111, pp. 313-341.

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Kramer, Bernd (1987) The Sexually Dimorphic Jamming Avoidance Response in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). Journal of Experimental Biology 130 (1), pp. 39-62.

Kramer, Bernd and Westby, G. W. M. (1985) No sex difference in the waveform of the pulse type electric fish,Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Experientia 41 (12), pp. 1530-1531.

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

sexual selection

Machnik, Peter and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei). The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 211 (12), pp. 1969-1977.

Sexuelle Selektion

Machnik, Peter (2010) Allopatrische Differenzierung der Elektrokommunikation der Bulldog-Fische des südlichen Afrika (Marcusenius-macrolepidotus-Komplex, Mormyridae, Teleostei). PhD, Universität Regensburg

signal waveform discrimination

Kramer, Bernd (1999) Waveform discrimination, phase sensitivity and jamming avoidance in a wave-type electric fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 202 (10), pp. 1387-1398.

Signal detection

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1996) Electrosensory phase sensitivity in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia in the detection of signals similar to its own. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 179 (3), pp. 323-330.

signal waveform

Kramer, Bernd and Otto, Brunhilde (1991) Waveform Discrimination in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Sensitivity for the Phase Differences Between the Spectral Components of a Stimulus Wave. Journal of Experimental Biology 159 (1), pp. 1-22.

Kramer, Bernd and Weymann, Dieter (1987) A microprocessor system for the digital synthesis of pulsed and continuous discharges of electric fish (or animal vocalization S). Behavioural Brain Research 23 (8), pp. 167-174.

Kramer, Bernd (1985) Jamming Avoidance in the Electric Fish Eigenmannia: Harmonic Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Waves. Journal of Experimental Biology 119 (1), pp. 41-69.

sound production

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Sound Production in the Territorial Behaviour of the Churchill Petrocephalus catostoma (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River. Bioacoustics 18 (2), pp. 151-158.

southern Africa

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2011) The Victoria Falls, a species boundary for the Zambezi Parrotfish, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus (Peters, 1852), and the resurrection of Cyphomyrus cubangoensis (Pellegrin, 1936) (Mormyridae: Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 45 (43-44), pp. 2669-2699.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Spawning

Werneyer, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Electric signalling and reproductive behaviour in a mormyrid fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (South African form). Journal of Ethology 23 (2), pp. 113-125.

speciation

Kramer, Bernd and van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2014) Marked differentiation in a new species of dwarf stonebasher, Pollimyrus cuandoensis sp. nov. (Mormyridae: Teleostei), from a contact zone with two sibling species of the Okavango and Zambezi rivers. Journal of Natural History 48, 7-8, 429-463.

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

Machnik, Peter and Markowski, Bianca and Kramer, Bernd (2010) Intra- versus inter-sexual selection in the dimorphic electric organ discharges of the snoutfish Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyriformes, Teleostei). Behaviour 147, pp. 677-704.

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

SPECIES RECOGNITION

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

spectral analysis

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

stimulus-intensity threshold

Kaunzinger, Ivo and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory stimulus-intensity thresholds in the weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia: reduced sensitivity at harmonics of its own organ discharge. The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 (11), pp. 2365-2372.

systematic

Kramer, Bernd (2013) Differentiation in morphology and electrical signalling in four species of para- and sympatric Marcusenius (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 46 (2), pp. 105-133.

systematics

Kramer, Bernd and Wink, Michael (2013) East–west differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in Southern Africa: the description of a new species for the lower Cunene River, Namibia (Teleostei: Mormyridae). Journal of Natural History 47 (35-36), pp. 2327-2362.

Kramer, Bernd and Bills, Roger and Skelton, Paul and Wink, Michael (2012) A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46 (35-36), pp. 2179-2258.

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Teleost brain

Bonn, Udo and Kramer, Bernd (1987) Distribution of Monoamine-Containing Neurons in the Brain of the Weakly Electric Teleost, Eigenmannia lineata (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae). Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 101 (2), pp. 339-362.

Teleostei

Kramer, Bernd and Skelton, Paul and Van der Bank, Herman and Wink, Michael (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the Marcusenius macrolepidotus species complex in southern and eastern Africa: the resurrection of M. pongolensis and M. angolensis, and the description of two new species (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 41 (9-12), pp. 647-708.

Temporal signal analysis

Paintner, Stephan and Kramer, Bernd (2003) Electrosensory basis for individual recognition in a weakly electric, mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Günther, 1866). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55 (5), pp. 197-208.

Territoriality

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the acoustic communication of a weakly electric fish from southern Africa, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (3), pp. 385-399.

territory

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Sound Production in the Territorial Behaviour of the Churchill Petrocephalus catostoma (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River. Bioacoustics 18 (2), pp. 151-158.

threshold

Kramer, Bernd and Kaunzinger, Ivo (1991) Electrosensory Frequency and Intensity Discrimination in the Wave-Type Electric Fish Eigenmannia. Journal of Experimental Biology 161 (1), pp. 43-59.

Upper Zambezi

Kramer, Bernd and Van der Bank, F. Herman (2000) The southern churchill, Petrocephalus wesselsi, a new species of mormyrid from South Africa defined by electric organ discharges, genetics, and morphology. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59, pp. 393-413.

VARIABILITY

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

Kramer, Bernd and Westby, G. W. M. (1985) No sex difference in the waveform of the pulse type electric fish,Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Experientia 41 (12), pp. 1530-1531.

Verhalten

Kramer, Bernd (1990) Electrocommunication in teleost fishes. Behavior and experiments. Zoophysiology, 29. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-51927-0; 0-387-51927-0.

vicariance

Kramer, Bernd and Swartz, Ernst R. (2010) A new species of Slender Stonebasher within the Hippopotamyrus ansorgii complex from the Cunene River in southern Africa (Teleostei: Mormyriformes). Journal of Natural History 44 (35-36), pp. 2213-2242.

vocalisation

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2008) Sound Production in the Territorial Behaviour of the Churchill Petrocephalus catostoma (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River. Bioacoustics 18 (2), pp. 151-158.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Allopatric differentiation in the acoustic communication of a weakly electric fish from southern Africa, Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (3), pp. 385-399.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2006) Differentiation of courtship songs in parapatric sibling species of dwarf stonebashers from southern Africa (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Behaviour 143 (6), pp. 783-810.

Lamml, Michael and Kramer, Bernd (2005) Sound production in the reproductive behaviour of the weakly electric fish Pollimyrus marianne Kramer et al. 2003 (Mormyridae, Teleostei). Bioacoustics - the International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording 15, pp. 51-78.

Water conductivity

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1989) Patterns of the electric organ discharge during courtship and spawning in the mormyrid fish, Pollimyrus isidori. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24 (6), pp. 349-368.

Bratton, Bradford O. and Kramer, Bernd (1988) Intraspecific variability of the pulse-type discharges of the African electric fishes, Pollimyrus isidori and Petrocephalus bovei (Mormyridae, Teleostei), and their dependence on water conductivity. Experimental Biology 47, pp. 227-238.

waveform

Kramer, Bernd and Westby, G. W. M. (1985) No sex difference in the waveform of the pulse type electric fish,Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Experientia 41 (12), pp. 1530-1531.

waveform analysis

Kramer, Bernd (1997) A field study of African elephantfish (Mormyridae, Teleostei): Electric organ discharges in Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Peters, 1852) and Petrocephalus catostoma (Günther, 1866) as related to sex. Journal of African zoology 111, pp. 313-341.

weakly electric fish

Postner, Martin and Kramer, Bernd (1995) Electrosensory thresholds in larvae of the weakly electric fish Pollymyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei) during ontogeny. The Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 198 (3), pp. 783-791.

weakly electric fish

Baier, Bernd and Kramer, Bernd (2007) Electric communication during courtship and spawning in two sibling species of dwarf stonebasher from southern Africa, Pollimyrus castelnaui and P. marianne (Mormyridae, Teleostei): evidence for a non species-specific communication code? Behaviour 144 (1), pp. 115-142.

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