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Self-Reported Medication Use and Urinary Drug Metabolites in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) Study

Kotsis, Fruzsina ; Schultheiss, Ulla ; Wuttke, Matthias ; Schlosser, Pascal ; Mielke, Johanna ; Becker, Michael ; Oefner, Peter ; Karoly, Edward ; Mohney, Robert ; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe ; Sekula, Peggy ; Köttgen, Anna



Abstract

Background Polypharmacy is common among patients with CKD, but little is known about the urinary excretion of many drugs and their metabolites among patients with CKD. Methods To evaluate self-reported medication use in relation to urine drug metabolite levels in a large cohort of patients with CKD, the German Chronic Kidney Disease study, we ascertained self-reported use of 158 substances and 41 ...

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