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Generation of cytokines in human visceral leishmaniasis: dissociation of endogenous TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production

Zwingenberger, K. ; Harms, G. ; Pedrosa, C. ; Pessoa, M. C. ; Sandkamp, B. ; Scheibenbogen, C. ; Andreesen, Reinhard


The role of TNF-alpha in visceral leishmaniasis is ambivalent, the eventual outcome of this infection, cure or generalization, being determined by the relative amounts of cytokines produced in vivo. Since release, by monocytes/macrophages, of TNF-alpha and interleukins 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 is important in both the induction and effector phases of the immune responses, these mediators were ...


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