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Downregulation of Checkpoint Protein Kinase 2 in the Urothelium of Healthy Male Tobacco Smokers

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Breyer, Johannes ; Denzinger, Stefan ; Hartmann, Arndt ; Otto, Wolfgang
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Date of publication of this fulltext: 28 Aug 2018 13:49


With this letter to the editor we present for the first time a study on CHEK2 expression in normal urothelium of healthy male smokers, former smokers and non-smokers. We could show a statistically significant downregulation of this DNA repair gene in current smokers compared to non-smokers, suggesting that smoking downregulates CHEK2 in normal urothelium, probably associated with an early step in carcinogenesis of urothelial bladder carcinoma. (C) 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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