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Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N. ; Koretsi, Vasiliki ; Jäger, Andreas


Aim: The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. Materials and methods: This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics ...


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