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When and How often to Externally Commercialize Technologies? A Critical Re-view of Outbound Open Innovation

Helm, Roland ; Endres, Herbert ; Hüsig, Stefan


Since the 1990s, external technology commercialization (ETC) has become increasingly relevant in business management practice and the academic literature. Frequently, ETC is praised as highly important and is often even considered an important competence of a progressive firm. To date, research has mainly focused on the opportunities and advantages of ETC, while risks and costs tend to be ignored ...


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