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Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids

Silman, Israel ; Wessler, Ignaz ; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel ; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie ; Brochhausen, Christoph ; Schmitz, Luise ; Anspach, Laura ; Grünewald, Bernd ; Kirkpatrick, Charles James



Abstract

The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the ...

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