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Time-Dependent Negative Effects of Verbal and Non-verbal Suggestions in Surgical Patients—A Study on Arm Muscle Strength

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Zech, Nina ; Schrödinger, Matthias ; Seemann, Milena ; Zeman, Florian ; Seyfried, Timo F. ; Hansen, Ernil
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
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Date of publication of this fulltext: 11 Dec 2020 14:37


Introduction The medical environment is full of suggestions that affect patients and their healing. Most of them inadvertently are negative, thus evoking nocebo effects. Recently, we have reported on the effect of such verbal and non-verbal suggestions as well as alternative formulations on maximal muscular arm strength in healthy volunteers. In the present study, we tested the same suggestions ...


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