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Venous Malformations: Phleboliths Correlate With the Presence of Arteriovenous Microshunts

Hammer, Simone ; Zeman, Florian ; Fellner, Claudia ; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. ; Uller, Wibke


OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to identify differences between venous malformations (VMs) with arteriovenous (AV) microshunts and VMs without AV microshunts. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In this retrospective study, 83 patients with untreated VMs of the extremities underwent a prospectively defined MRI protocol performed at 3 T MR images were reviewed to determine localization and extent of ...


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