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Strategies for the design of bright upconversion nanoparticles for bioanalytical applications

Wiesholler, Lisa M. ; Hirsch, Thomas


In recent years upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) received great attention because of their outstanding optical properties. Especially in bioanalytical applications this class of materials can overcome limitations of common probes like high background fluorescence or blinking. Nevertheless, the requirements for UCNPs to be applicable in biological samples, e.g. small size, water-dispersibility, ...


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