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Indoxyl 3-sulfate inhibits maturation and activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

Ghimire, Sakhila ; Matos, Carina ; Caioni, Massimiliano ; Weber, Daniela ; Peter, Katrin ; Holler, Ernst ; Kreutz, Marina ; Renner, Kathrin


Indole is produced from L-tryptophan by commensal bacteria and further metabolized to indoxyl 3-sulfate (I3S) in the liver. Physiologic concentrations of I3S are related to a lower risk to develop graft versus host disease in allogeneic stem cell transplanted patients pointing towards an immunoregulatory function of I3S. Here we investigated the impact of I3S on the maturation of human ...


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