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High-Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Human Papillomavirus Status and PD-L1 Expression

Bahr, Katharina ; Zimmer, Stefanie ; Springer, Erik ; Fottner, Christian ; Becker, Sven ; Ernst, Benjamin P. ; Matthias, Christoph ; Künzel, Julian


Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma represents an important subgroup of head and neck cancer, but HPV occurs also in the less common neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway appears to be activated in pulmonary NEC and correlates with a higher mutation burden, but the potential of NEC to respond to checkpoint inhibitors is unknown to ...


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