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Measurement of Sub-femtomolar Concentrations of Prostate-Specific Antigen through Single-Molecule Counting with an Upconversion-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Mickert, Matthias J. ; Farka, Zdeněk ; Kostiv, Uliana ; Hlaváček, Antonín ; Horák, Daniel ; Skládal, Petr ; Gorris, Hans H.


Single-molecule (digital) immunoassays provide the ability to detect much lower protein concentrations than conventional immunoassays. As photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can be detected without optical background interference, they are excellent labels for so-called single-molecule upconversion-linked immunosorbent assays (ULISAs). We have introduced a UCNP label design based on ...


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