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Sex and Age Don't Matter, but Breed Type Does—Factors Influencing Eye Wrinkle Expression in Horses

Schanz, Lisa ; Krueger, Konstanze ; Hintze, Sara


Identifying valid indicators to assess animals' emotional states is a critical objective of animal welfare science. In horses, eye wrinkles above the eyeball have been shown to be affected by pain and other emotional states. From other species we know that individual characteristics, e.g., age in humans, affect facial wrinkles, but it has not yet been investigated whether eye wrinkle expression ...


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