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Click-conjugated photon-upconversion nanoparticles in an immunoassay for honeybee pathogen Melissococcus plutonius

Poláchová, Veronika ; Pastucha, Matěj ; Mikušová, Zuzana ; Mickert, Matthias J. ; Hlaváček, Antonín ; Gorris, Hans H. ; Skládal, Petr ; Farka, Zdeněk


European foulbrood (EFB) is an infectious disease affecting honeybee larvae caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the gold standard for antibody-based bacteria detection, however, its sensitivity is not high enough to reveal early-stage EFB infection. Photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are lanthanide-doped nanomaterials that emit ...


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