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Hidden protectionism? Evidence from non-tariff barriers to trade in the United States

Grundke, Robert ; Moser, Christoph


Can the enforcement of product standards be protectionism in disguise? This paper estimates the costs of non-compliance with U.S. product standards, using a new database on U.S. import refusals from 2002 to 2014. We find that import refusals decrease exports to the United States. This trade reducing effect is driven by developing countries and by refusals without any product sample analysis, in ...


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