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MicroRNA-21-Enriched Exosomes as Epigenetic Regulators in Melanomagenesis and Melanoma Progression: The Impact of Western Lifestyle Factors

Melnik, Bodo C. ; John, Swen Malte ; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro ; Schmitz, Gerd


DNA mutation-induced activation of RAS-BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling associated with intermittent or chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation cannot exclusively explain the excessive increase of malignant melanoma (MM) incidence since the 1950s. Malignant conversion of a melanocyte to an MM cell and metastatic MM is associated with a steady increase in microRNA-21 (miR-21). At the epigenetic level, miR-21 ...


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