Kreutz, M. and Fritsche, J. and Ackermann, U. and Krause, S. W. and Andreesen, Reinhard (1998) Retinoic acid inhibits monocyte to macrophage survival and differentiation. Blood 91 (12), pp. 4796-802.
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Vitamin A metabolites are potent differentiation-inducing agents for myelomonocytic cell lines in vitro and are successfully used for the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, little is known about the effects of vitamin A on normal hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of vitamin A on differentiation and activation of human blood monocytes (MO). Culturing MO for up to 4 days with 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) and all-trans RA but not retinol reduced MO survival, with the remaining cells being morphologically comparable to control cells. Because macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a well-known survival factor for MO, we measured the M-CSF content of MO culture supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found that RA suppressed the constitutive secretion of M-CSF. Northern analysis showed that the M-CSF mRNA expression was only slightly reduced by RA treatment, suggesting regulation on the posttranscriptional level. In contrast to MO, M-CSF secretion by MO-derived macrophages (MAC) was not altered by RA, suggesting a differentiation-dependent switch in the responsiveness of MO/MAC to RA. Because M-CSF is not only a survival-promoting but also a differentiation-promoting factor for myeloid cells, we analyzed the effect of RA on MO to MAC maturation. RA suppressed the expression of the maturation-associated antigen carboxypeptidase M (CPM)/MAX.1 at both the protein and mRNA levels and modulated the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine secretion of MO/MAC. The addition of exogenous M-CSF to RA-containing MO cultures fails to overcome the RA-induced inhibition of MO differentiation. However, the survival rate was improved by exogenous M-CSF. We conclude that RA acts via two different mechanisms on monocyte survival and differentiation: posttranscriptionally by controlling M-CSF secretion, which decreases MO survival, and transcriptionally regulating the expression of differentiation-associated genes. The regulation of M-CSF production may contribute to the antileukemic effect of RA in vivo by reducing autocrine M-CSF production by leukemic cells.
|Institutions:||Medicine > Abteilung für Hämatologie und Internistische Onkologie|
|Subjects:||600 Technology > 610 Medical sciences Medicine|
|Refereed:||Yes, this version has been refereed|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Yes|
|Deposited On:||15 Apr 2010 05:32|
|Last Modified:||15 Apr 2010 05:32|