Rzepecki, P. and Gallmeier, H. and Geib, N. and König, B. and Schrader, T. (2004) New heterocyclic β-sheet ligands with peptidic recognition elements. J. Org. Chem. 69, 5168 – 5178.
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A detailed and comprehensive overview is presented about the design, modeling, and synthesis, as well as spectroscopic characterization, of a new class of beta-sheet ligands. The characteristic feature of these compounds is a peptidic chimeric structure formed from a specific combination of aminopyrazolecarboxylic acids with naturally occurring alpha-amino acids. These hybrid peptides are designed with the aid of molecular modeling to exist mainly in an extended conformation. All their hydrogen bond donors and acceptors can be aligned at the bottom face in such a way that a perfect complementarity toward beta-sheets is obtained. Thus the aminopyrazoles impart rigidity and a highly efficient DAD sequence for the recognition of whole dipeptide fragments, whereas the natural alpha-amino acids are designed to mimick recognition sites in proteins, ultimately leading to sequence-selective protein recognition. The synthetic protocols either rely upon solution phase peptide coupling with a PMB protecting group strategy or solid-phase peptide coupling based on the Fmoc strategy, using the same protecting group. In solution, a key building block was prepared by catalytic reduction of a nitropyrazolecarboxylic acid precursor. Subsequently, it was (N-1)-protected with a PMB group, and elongated by HCTU- or T3P-assisted peptide coupling with dipeptide fragments, followed by PyClop-assisted coupling with another nitropyrazolecarboxylic acid building block. Final simultaneous deprotection of all PMB groups with hot TFA completed the high-yield protocol, which works racemization-free. After preparing a similar key building block with an Fmoc protection at N-3, we developed a strategy suitable for automated synthesis of larger hybrid ligands on a peptide synthesizer. Attachment of the first amino acid to a polystyrene resin over the Sieber amide linker is followed by an iterative sequence consisting of Fmoc deprotection with piperidine and subsequent coupling with natural alpha-amino acid via HATU/HOAt. High yields of free hybrid peptides are obtained after mild acidic cleavage from the resin, followed by deprotection of the PMB groups with hot TFA. The new aminopyrazole peptide hybrid compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic measurements including CD spectra, VT, and ROESY NMR experiments. All these accumulated data indicate the absence of any intramolecular hydrogen bonds and strongly support an extended conformation in solution, ideal for docking on to solvent-exposed beta-sheets in proteins. Initial results from aggregation tests of pathological proteins with these and related ligands look extremely promising.
|Institutions:||Chemistry and Pharmacy > Institut für Organische Chemie > Lehrstuhl Prof. Dr. Burkhard König|
|Projects:||GRK 760, Graduiertenkolleg Medizinische Chemie|
|Subjects:||500 Science > 540 Chemistry & allied sciences|
|Refereed:||Yes, this version has been refereed|
|Created at the University of Regensburg:||Yes|
|Deposited On:||05 Mar 2009 10:54|
|Last Modified:||09 Nov 2010 13:24|