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Awake craniotomies without any sedation: the awake awake-awake technique

Hansen, Ernil ; Seemann, Milena ; Zech, Nina ; Doenitz, Christian ; Luerding, Ralf ; Brawanski, Alexander


The main challenges for patients undergoing awake craniotomies include anxiety and fears, terrifying noises and surroundings, immobility, loss of control, and the feeling of helplessness and being left alone. In such situations, psychological support might be more helpful than the pharmacological approach. With adequate therapeutic communication, patients do not require any sedation and no or ...


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