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Associations between urinary 3-indoxyl sulfate, a gut microbiome-derived biomarker, and patient outcomes after intensive care unit admission

Kuo, Selena Z. ; Dettmer, Katja ; Annavajhala, Medini K. ; Chong, David H. ; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin ; Abrams, Julian A. ; Oefner, Peter J. ; Freedberg, Daniel E.


Purpose: 3-indoxyl sulfate (3-IS) is an indole metabolism byproduct produced by commensal gut bacteria and excreted in the urine; low urinary 3-IS has been associated with increased mortality in bone marrow transplant recipients. This study investigated urinary 3-IS and patient outcomes in the ICU. Materials and methods: Prospective study that collected urine samples, rectal swabs, and clinical ...


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