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The clonal relation of primary upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma and paired urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

Doeveren, Thomas ; Nakauma‐Gonzalez, Jose A. ; Mason, Andrew S. ; Leenders, Geert J. L. H. ; Zuiverloon, Tahlita C. M. ; Zwarthoff, Ellen C. ; Meijssen, Isabelle C. ; Made, Angelique C. ; Heijden, Antoine G. ; Hendricksen, Kees ; Rhijn, Bas W. G. ; Voskuilen, Charlotte S. ; Riet, Job ; Dinjens, Winand N. M. ; Dubbink, Hendrikus J. ; Werken, Harmen J. G. ; Boormans, Joost L.


The risk of developing urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) in patients treated by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for an upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is 22% to 47% in the 2 years after surgery. Subject of debate remains whether UTUC and the subsequent UCB are clonally related or represent separate origins. To investigate the clonal relationship between both entities, we ...


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