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Sleep can reduce the testing effect: it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items unaffected

Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T. ; Holterman, Christoph ; Abel, Magdalena


The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice in comparison to restudy of previously encoded contents can improve memory performance and reduce time-dependent forgetting. Naturally, long retention intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep immediately after encoding can induce a mnemonic benefit, stabilizing and ...


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